"Playing with Technology: Sports, Toys and Amusement Parks"
arranged by Nikolaus Katzer and Stefan Poser
I. Section 1
Bo Sundin (Umea University), "The Dedicated Amateur"
Vanessa Toulmin (National Fairground Archive, University of Sheffield),
"Civilisation of the Fair: Technological revolutions in mid Victorian
Travelling Fairs in the United Kingdom and its impact on patterns of leisure"
Peter Donhauser (Vienna Museum of Technology), "'Playing is the highest
form of research': The role of experiments in the emergence of electronic
music in the 1920s and 1930s
I. Section 2
Vasily Borisov (Russian Academy of Sciences), "Development of mechanical
television and amateur designing TV receivers in Russia (1930s)"
Artemis Yagou (Athens), "Technology as fun: the case of radio-set
Jeffrey Tang (James Madison University), "A system of my own: Consumer
design in postwar American high-fidelity audio
I. Section 3
Nikolaus Katzer (Helmut-Schmidt Universität Hamburg), "Constructing
the Soviet Superman"
Alexandra Köhring (Helmut-Schmidt Universität Hamburg), "'A
city of sports': The 'Luzhniki'-stadium in Moscow (1954-1956)"
Natascha Adamowsky (Humboldt-Universität Berlin), "Playing underwater
about the development and promotion of diving technology for leisure purposes"
I. Section 4
Anker Helms Jorgensen (University of Copenhagen), "Driving Forces
in Early Computer Games: The Case of Piet Hein, Regnecentralen, and Nim"
Joseph Wachelder (Maastricht Universiteit),"Toys as Mediators"
Stefan Poser (Zentrum Technik und Gesellschaft, Technische Universität
Berlin), "Nothing more than Play? Playing with technology as subject
of the Cultural History of Technology"
"Social History of Military Technology" arranged by Bart
II. Section 1. Before the 19th Century
Barton C. Hacker (Smithsonian Institution), "A Brief Introduction to the Symposium on the Social History of Military Technology"
Michael Anton Budd (Salve Regina University), "Romantic Realism, Civil-Militarization and the Limits of Technological Being"
Jamel Ostwald (Eastern Connecticut State University), "Competing Views of Military Utility in Vauban-Era Siegecraft"
Christophe Bonnet (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), "Furnace Workers and the Casting of Guns: A Quasi-Corporation in Rural 18th-Century France"
II. Section 2. 19th and Early 20th Century
Boleslaw Orlowski (Institute for the History of Science, Warsaw), "On
a Mysterious Proposal for a Chemical Weapon during the Crimean War"
Slawomir Lotysz (University of Zielona Gora), "A Quest for Life:
The Birth of Bulletproof Vest"
Stanislaw Januszewski (Technical University of Wroclaw), "Stefan
Drzewiecki?A Pioneer of Submarine Navigation"
II. Section 3. The Era of the First World War
Bruce Hevly (University of Washington), "The Militarization of American
Ralf Raths (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University), "The Evolution
of German Tactics (1906-1918) and New Technologies-Integration, Refusal
Gil-li Vardi (London School of Economics), "'Use with Caution': German
Military Culture and the Use of Technology before and after the First
II. Section 4. Military Aircraft Design and Countermeasures
Petter Wulff (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), "Science
and Art behind a Military Aircraft"
Jeremy R. Kinney (National Air and Space Museum), "Designed to Win:
The Social Construction of Military Air Racers in the 1920s"
David Zimmerman (University of Victoria), "The Scientific Translator
in Empirical Design: A comparison of the Development of Radar and Sonar,
II. Section 5. World War II and After
Lisa L. Ossian (Des Moines Area Community College), "The 'Robomb
Generation': Children of the Second World War Playing with Very Real Military
Mats Fridlund (Technical University of Denmark) and Bernard Geoghegan
(Northwestern University), "Designing Terror by Air and Underground:
The Postwar Construction of 'Leaflet Bombs'"
Colin Hempstead (Teeside University), "A Tyro and Infra Red Fuses"
II. Section 6. Cold War Technologies
Mikael Nilsson (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), "Tools
of Hegemony: Guided Missiles, U.S. Preponderance, and Advanced Military
Technology Transfer During the Cold War, 1954-1962"
Michael A. Nelson (Presbyterian College), "'It's no happy hollow':
The Social Costs of Strategic Hamlets in South Vietnam"
James R. Fleming (Colby College) and Mette Fog Olwig (Woodrow Wilson Center),
"Weaponizing the Climate: Historical Roots, Reactions, and Current
Status of the 1978 'ENMOD' Treaty"
"Designing the Body: Technology and Medicine" arranged by Hans-Joachim
III. Section 1
Darwin Stapleton (Rockefeller Archives), "The Technological Basis
of One of the Great Discoveries of the 20th Century: Oswald T. Avery and
DNA at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research"
Walter Rathjen (DeutschesMuseum Munich), "Dental technology, oral
health and aesthetic appearance"
Helmut Braun (University of Regensburg), "Extracorporeal Shock-Wave
Lithotripsy (ESWL) as a new paradigm in the treatment of kidney-stones:
Invention and diffusion patterns in Germany"
III. Section 2
Michael Martin and Heiner Fangerau (Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf),
"Listening to the heart's power: Designing blood pressure measurement"
Jose Martinez-Perez (University of Castilla-La Mancha), "Technology
for re-building the mutilated body: the design and application of prostheses
and the consolidation of the "medical model" of disability in
Kirsten E. Gardner (University of Texas San Antonio), "Portable Body
Parts: Insulin Pumps and the History of Diabetes"
"The Design of Sites of Gunpowder/Explosives Production: National
and Technological Influences" arranged by Brenda Buchanan
IV. Section 1
Brenda J.Buchanan (Bath University), "The Manufacture of Explosives
in the Countryside - Form and Function"
José Manuel de Mascarenhas (University of Évora), António
de Carvalho Quintela (Instituto Superior Técnico), and Tânia
Prata Rodrigues (University of Évora), "Gunpowder Factories:
Geographical Context and Spatial Arrangement. Comparative Study of Portuguese
Motherland and Overseas Gunpowder Factories"
Steven G. Collins (St.Louis Community College at Meramec), "System,
Uniformity, and Technological Transfer in the Production of Confederate
IV. Section 2
Bert S. Hall (University of Toronto), "What Was 'Serpentine' Gunpowder?"
Kelly DeVries (Loyola University of Baltimore), "The Ravenna Gun"
Xiaodong Yin (Chinese Academy of Sciences), "Western Cannons in China
in the eighteenth - nineteenth century
IV. Section 3
Patrice Bret (Centre Alexandre Koyré), "England or Denmark?
France or Poland? Gunpowder and National War Rocket Systems in the Early
Yoel Bergman (Tel-Aviv University), "The Moulin-Blanc Nitrocellulose
Plant in France: Process and Improvements in the early 1890s"
Henk J. Reitsma (Netherlands Defence Research Organisation, retired) and
Arti L. Ponsen (Leiden University), "Explosions: The Leiden disaster
Session 1. Designs for Utopia
Roman V. Artemenko (Russian Academy of Sciences), "Designed by F.
M. Dostoevsky & Co."
Hamid van Koten (University of Dundee), "The Engineering of Community:
Walt Disney's Ideological Environments"
Mark Clark (Oregon Institute of Technology), "Hugo Gernsback's Technological
Vision and the Origins of the Geek Community"
Session 2. Designing for Women
Julie Wosk (State University of New York, Maritime College), "Designing
For Women, Designing For Men"
Kara Hammond (College of Charleston), "The Myth of Difference: Gender
specification in Bicycle Design and Technology, 1890-1990"
Amy Bix (Iowa State University), "Pink Cellphones and Flowered Hammers:
Tools and Tech Toys Designed for the Women's Market"
Session 3. Tweaking Technology
Timo Leimbach (Deutsches Museum), "Designing information? Software
development between art and engineering"
Andreas Fickers (Utrecht University), "Design as mediating interface:
the user illusion and the surface of things"
Tanfer Tunc (Hacettepe University, Ankara), "Reconfiguring Reproduction:
Tweaking American Abortion Technologies in the Twentieth Century
Session 4. Designing Public Transport
Dimitri Tate (François Rabelais University, Tours), "Design
and Aesthétics in Public Transport
Michael Mende (Braunschweig University of Arts), "Designing the Feeling
of Speed and Leisure Adventures: 1930s Streamline Vehicles Demonstrating
National Pride by Stressing both International Style and Manufacturing
Dorthe Gert Simonsenm (University of Copenhagen), "A cabin in the
sky: Safety, luxury and modernity in the shaping of airplane interiors"
Session 5. Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Rick Szostak (University of Alberta), "The Contribution of the History
of Technology to our Understanding of Economic Growth"
Martina Hessler (Academy of Arts and Design, Offenbach), "Technology
and Design: Some thoughts about the dialogue of the history of technology
and design history"
Ulrik Jorgensen (Technical University of Denmark), "A heterogeneous
flock-tracing roots of the different design professions, their practices,
Session 6. Simulation, Software and Cyberworlds
Erik Conway (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), "Simulation and Spacecraft
Design: Mars Viking and Mars Pathfinder in (a little bit of) Historical
Martha Ortega (Sociedad Mexicana de Historia de la Ciencia y la Tecnología),
"Development and Application of Software in the Eighties in México"
Jean Béhue Guetteville (Ecole Polytechnique), "A history of
Cyberworlds. When the technology of virtual reality merged with the mythology
of the Internet"
Session 7. Roads, Cars and Cities
Jorgen Burchardt (Danish National Museum of Science and Technology), "The
Design of Roads as a Craft: The role of research, experiments and experiences
in road construction from 1880-1960"
Tomás Errázuriz Infante (Pontificia Universidad Católica
de Chile), "Santiago/Chile on wheels? Three distinctions to help
understand how automobiles have impacted Latin American cities (1900-1950)"
Andrés Valderrama (Technical University of Denmark), "The
beauty and the beast: a comparative study of urban transport and city
development in Copenhagen and Bogotá, 1940-2000"
Session 8. Waste Disposal and Recycling
Dolly Jorgensen (University of Virginia), "Simple versus Complex:
Overcoming notions of medieval waste handling ineffectiveness"
Hanne Lindegaard (Technical University of Denmark), "The use of 'the
history of technology' in design practice"
Finn Arne Jorgensen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology),
"Green machines: The blending of technology and environmentalism
in beverage container recycling systems"
Session 9. Designing Personalities
Stanislav Juznic (University of Oklahoma), "Gabriel Gruber?From Ljubljanese
Canal to Jesuit General"
Shaul Katzir (Leo-Baeck Institute, London), "Hermann Aron (1845-1913)
path from physics to electrical invention and industry"
Karel Zeithammer (Technical Museum Prague), "'Handbuch der Mechanik'-the
most essential work of F. J. Gerstner"
Session 10. National Styles in Telephony
Dr. Angel Calvo (University of Barcelona), "A national technology
for the telephone automatization in Spain, 1924-1945?"
Jan Hadlaw (York University), "Canadian Nationalism, Modern Design,
and Technological Pragmatism: The Case of the 1967 Contempra Telephone"
Chris Chilvers (Technical University of Denmark), "Empires of Dust:
the Political Economy of System X"
Session 11. Transferring Technologies
Casper Andersen (University of Aarhus), "Imperial Designers: British
Consulting Engineers in Africa ca. 1900"
Sorcha O'Brien (University of Brighton), "National Style and the
Imagined Community: the transfer of electricity generation from Germany
to Ireland, 1924-1932"
Kjetil Fallan (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), "Scientific
Operationalism by Social Osmosis? An Instance of 'German' Design in Norway"
Session 12. Designing Consumption
Lars Bluma (Ruhr-Universität Bochum), "Designing a new material:
Spun rayon and the junction between producers and consumers in Germany"
Frederik Nebeker (Rutgers University), "Industrial Design and the
Emergence of the Consumer-Electronics Industry"
Heike Weber (Technical University Darmstadt), "From the black to
the coloured box: Fashioning and Personalizing Consumer Technologies"
Session 13. International Comparisons
Seija Linnanmaki (Finnish National Board of Antiquities), "Mechanical
and electrical systems in historic buildings 1895-1905 in Finland-International
style more than an expression of Finnish design"
Wolfgang Koenig (Technische Universität Berlin), "Production
culture and design culture: Engineering design in the US and in the German
machinery industry, 1900-1940"
Per Högselius and Arne Kaijser (Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm),
"The Politics of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Historical Perspective: An
Session 14. Energy Productions
Vahur Mägi (Tallinn University of Technology), "Splendid design
solutions forced by fuel crisis"
Anthony N. Stranges (Texas A&M University), "Germany's Fischer-Tropsch
Synthesis 1926-45: The World's First Commercial-Scale Alternative Energy
Seong-jun Kim (Seoul National University), "Searching for Technological
Autonomy: The Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant Project in South Korea,
Session 15. Aspects of Urban Life
Bruno Cordovil Cordeiro (University of Lisbon), "What's Been Used
to Light the Streets? Geographies of Lighting Technologies in Portugal
(XIXth to mid XXth cent.)"
Outi Ampuja (University of Helsinki), "Who needs trolleys, leaf-blowers
or snowmobiles? Examples of technological decision making in Finland,
Susan Anderson Hunter and Rena Porsen (ITESM Campus Monterrey), "Landscape-
Cityscape, When did the dwelling become a city?"
Session 16. Designing Instruments
Klaus Ruthenberg (Coburg University of Applied Sciences), "The Glass
Electrode - From Imagination to Practice"
Ronald Michael Frazzini (University of Minnesota), "Innovation and
Design Process of Olivetti's Mechanical Calculators"
Frode Weium (Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology), "Designing
the ether waves. Production and design of the theremin"
Session 17. Technological Viewpoints
Constantin Canavas (Hamburg University of Applied Sciences), "Does
the direction count? Designing the rotation scheme of animal-driven machines"
Dr. Christine Finn (University of Bristol), "Looking back, looking
forward: retro technology as a design force"
Reinhold Bauer (Helmut Schmidt Universität, Universität der
Bundeswehr Hamburg), "The Stirling-Engine - The 'Cyclical Life' of
an old Technology"
Session 18. Nineteenth-Century Technology
Andreas Kahlow (Fachhochschule Potsdam - University of Applied Sciences),
"Design and Construction of Suspension Bridges: Principles by Johann
Augustus Roebling (1806-1836)"
Blanca Estela García (Sociedad Mexicana de Historia de la Ciencia
y la Tecnología), "Analysis of the Industrialization Project
in the Mexican Textile Industry: 1830-1842"
Eugénie Briot (Centre d'Histoire des Techniques/Conservatoire National
des Arts et Métiers), "Fashioning the Fleeting and the Invisible:
Perfumery as a Luxury Industry in XIXth-Century Paris"
Session 19. Controversial Technologies
Charles Scawthorn (Kyoto University), "American Firefighting Water
Supply and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire"
Tzung-De Lin (University of Edinburgh), "From Models to Intuition:
A Controversy over Control System Design in Japan"
John B. Stranges (Niagara University), "Love Canal Reclaimed"
Session 20. Technology and National Identity
Anne-Katrin Ebert (Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin), "Designing the
'Tool of the Dutch': the Bicycle in the Netherlands, 1890-1930"
Timo Myllyntaus (University of Turku), "Design in Building an Industrial
Identity, The Breakthrough of Finnish Design in the 1950s and 1960s"
Shiau Hong-chi, Ms. Huang Hsiang-chun; Ms. Hsieh Shin-tien; Ms. Hsieh
Meng-tien; Mr. Tsai Cheng-peng (Shih-Hsin University), "Framing the
Tallest Skyscraper in the World: An Analysis of Local News Coverage of
Session 21. Methods, Values and Security
Manuel Perez Garcia (European University Institute), "Databases and
Genealogical Programs Applied to Late Modern History. A Particular Case
of Southern Europe (XVIIIth century)
Masaaki Okada (Kinki University, Osaka), "History of Aesthetic Evaluation
Glenn Murray (Royal Segovia Mint Foundation), "Designing Product
Security: The Case of Coinage"
Session 22. Aspects of Flight
Federico Lazarín Miranda (Sociedad Mexicana de Historía
de la Ciencia y la Tecnología), "Design and Construction of
Mexican Aircraft, 1909-1939"
W. David Lewis (Auburn University), "Carl Ben Eielson's Trans-Arctic
Flight from Alaska to Norway, April 1928"
O. Yu. Poletayeva and E. M. Movsumzade (USPTU, UFA; "SIBUR",
Moscow), "Stages of the Development of Aircraft Fuels"
Session 23. Philosophy of science and technology
Vitaly Gorokhov (University of Karlsruhe), "Modern Systems Design
and Traditional Engineering Design"
Liliya Ponomarenko ((National Technical University of Ukraine "Kiev
Polytechnic Institute"), "Design of scientific creativity forms
on the example of scientific schools"
Alla Lytvinko (G. M. Dobrov Center for Scientific and Technological Potential
and Science History Studies NAS of Ukraine), "Design of style of
thinking during formation of scientific pictures of the world"
Session 24. Ethnography of Technical Systems
Joan Rothschild (City University of New York), "'The Mind's Eye':
CAD (Computer-Aided Design) in Imagination and Practice"
William Odom (Indiana University), "The Design of Native American
Websites: From Web Rings to Cyber-Locality"
Smiljana Antonijevic, (University of Minnesota), "Second Life, Second
Body: A Microethnographic Analysis of Nonverbal Communication in a Multiuser
3D Virtual Environment"
Session 25. Integrating Technical Systems
Eric Ny (Ontario College of Art & Design), "Sustainability's
Emerging Design Aesthetic"
Inari Aaltojärvi (University of Tampere), "Creating an integrated
middle-way to smart home design"
Floortje Daemen and André Somers (Rathenau Institute), "Expectations
and performance of large scale knowledge sharing infrastructures"
Minutes of the ICOHTEC General Assembly
34th ICOHTEC Symposium in Copenhagen, 17 August 2007, at 18:45 –19:58
Location: Technical Knowledge Centre of Denmark at the Technical University of Denmark
Present: 33 colleagues
Minutes by Timo Myllyntaus
Report by the President
The General Assembly was opened by the President, Hans-Joachim Braun. He thanked local organisers Jan Tapdrup and his team. He also thanked Barton Hacker, the rest of the Programme Committee, and ICOHTEC officers for their efforts. He was of the opinion that the symposium had started in a promising way and that it will be a good model to emulate for future ICOHTEC conference organizers.
Furthermore, the President transmitted news related to the celebration of the anniversary that SHOT will have during its 2007 meeting in Washington, DC.
The President proposed the following changes to the By-laws, Article 14 (black = old text, green = revisions):
The Executive Committee will consist of the five officers (Article 17), the immediate past president, the immediate past secretary general, and twelve other members. The five officers are to be elected by ballot at the regular meeting of the General Assembly every four years and three of the other twelve members are to be elected by ballot at the regular meeting of the General Assembly every year; unless one third of the members present at the General Assembly requests a postal ballot of all members currently in benefit, in which event the secretary general shall conduct such a postal ballot within one month of the General Assembly. Elected members to the Executive Committee shall not serve for more than three consecutive terms of four years each.
He also proposed to change the Article 17 in a way that the president will serve one term of four years and other officers up to three successive terms. The assembly accepted these changes.
Election of the New Executive Committee
When the General Assembly at the Leicester symposium decided that the new executive committee was to be elected at the General Assembly in Copenhagen, a nomination committee was elected to prepare the matter. That committee was chaired by James Williams; other members were Mats Fridlund, Alex Keller and Erich Pauer. After hearing the proposal of the nomination committee modified by the old Executive Committee, the assembly discussed the following:
1 year term: Vasily Borisov*, Tatsuya Kobayashi*, Karel Zeithammer*
2 year term: Paula Maria Diogo, Mats Fridlund*, David Zimmerman*
3 year term: Takehiko Hashimoto, Thomas Kaiserfeld, Eva Vamos
4 year term: Patrick Bret*, Serafina Cuomo, Rebecca Herzig
* = present in the Copenhagen symposium
This proposal was also accepted unanimously. It was proposed that the following past presidents will continue to act as the members of the Executive Committee:
• R. Angus Buchanan *
• Alexandre Herlea *
• Carroll Pursell
Also this proposal was accepted without objections.
Report by the Secretary General
The Secretary General, Timo Myllyntaus, explained strategic lines accepted in the Beijing symposium and how ICOHTEC had followed those lines during the past year. The website has been reformed, the renovation of the Newsletter continues and a series of country reports has been started.
He reported about the plans concerning the future symposia. The 35the symposium will be held in Victoria, Canada from Tuesday 5 to Sunday 10 August 2008. The Executive Committee had discussed during the spring via email the main theme and the title of the symposium, and its suggestion is “Crossing Borders in the History of Technology”. The chair of the Local organising committee, David Zimmerman, reported briefly about the preparation of the Victoria symposium mentioning that his staff was ahead of the schedule in several matters. In addition, the website of the Victoria symposium has been opened at http://icohtec.uvic.ca/
After discussion, the General Assembly decided to nominate the following colleagues to the programme committee for 2008: Mats Fridlund (chair), Lars Bluma, Finn Arne Jørgensen and Joy Parr.
The assembly decided that the committe’s first task will be to prepare a Call for Papers in cooperation with ICOHTEC officers and LOC by mid-September. The CfP should include subthemes, instructions for preparing a paper and session proposals. After discussion, it was decided to experiment with a double deadline for paper and session proposals in order to support participants’ efforts to apply for travel grants. The first deadline will expire on Monday 14 January (for those needing early decision) and Monday 3 March (for others).
The secretary general reported on the forthcoming 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, to be held in Budapest on 26 – 31 July, 2009. The main theme will be Ideas and Instruments in Social Context. The congress has opened its website, which is available at: www.conferences.hu/ichs09 .
The meeting decided that we will aim at 3 to 4 ICOHTEC -sessions and that everybody is invited to submit paper and session proposals until the deadline on 3 March 2008. The executive committee will make the decision on the basis of the proposal by the programme committee in early June, because ICHST has set the deadline for symposia proposals on 30 June 2008.
The following three persons were elected to the programme committee: Reinhold Bauer (chair), Finn Arne Jørgensen, and Outi Ampuja. The committee’s tasks were similar to those of the Victoria programme committee. Its immediate task will also be to prepare a Call for Papers in cooperation with ICOHTEC officers and LOC by mid-September.
The secretary general reminded colleagues that in Leicester the General Assembly discussed the symposium of 2010 and asked for further information on the proposal of the Finnish city Tampere. He had prepared guidelines on organising a joint meeting with TICCIH. After the General Assembly discussed these guidelines and the cooperation of ICOHTEC and TICCIH in the preparation of the joint meeting, it decided that the venue of the 2010 symposium will be Tampere. After that resolution, the assembly authorized the president and the general secretary to negotiate with the LOC and representative of TICCIH on organising of the joint symposium. It was discussed dates and the assembly ended to recommend the period Tuesday 10 – Sunday 15 August to the dates of the symposium.
Report by the Treasurer
In his report, the treasurer Wolfhard Weber mentioned that the economic situation of ICOHTEC has remained stable. The accounts were examined by Angus Buchanan, whose conclusion was that ICOHTEC has been run prudently and its finances are on a sound basis.
Weber also reported that during 2006 the number of members had increased slightly and that he had managed to collect more annual fees than in 2005. In addition, the treasurer announced that the Turriano Foundation had decided to donate annually 2000 euros to ICOHTEC to support graduate students to participate in our symposia.
Report by the Editor Alex Keller reported on the editing of ICON and regretted to inform members that there have been some delays. However, ICON volume 12 is almost ready. It is in the proof stage and will be out this autumn. It was decided that James Williams will be the guest editor of volume 13 (Copenhagen volume) and Bart Hacker will edit the volume 14 (Military history volume). It was the assembly’s wish that these two volumes will be published by the end of 2008.
Report by the Newsletter Editor
The Newsletter editor Stefan Poser was sorry to report that disturbing external messages had been distributed via ICOHTEC’s mailing list. He hoped that this problem will soon be sorted out. Then he informed members about an ongoing reform of the Newsletter, the main aim of which is to diversify the contents of this publication. Series of bibliographies and country reports have been started. He suggested that members became more active in submitting their contributions and announcements to the Newsletter.
Attendants agreed on the importance of communication. Discussants were pleased that ICOHTEC’s website was reformed during the past academic year. Its graphical style was considered elegant; nevertheless, the utilisation of available opportunities further was proposed. After discussion, the assembly proposed that ICOHTEC’s website should be updated more frequently in the future, and that more information should be provided to members.
The President, Hans-Joachim Braun, thanked all attendants for participating in the General Assembly and its lively discussions. Thereafter, he closed the meeting at 19:58.